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McGill University Faculty of Religious Studies 1998-99 
260-451A Zen: Maxims and Methods
T Th 8:30-10 Birks Rm 203

G. Victor Sogen Hori 
Office: 3534 University St. Rm 30
Hours: T Th 10:30-12. Tel 398-134

260-451A Zen: Maxims and Methods

Syllabus REVISED 9/7/98

Prerequisite
260-252 Hinduism and Buddhism; or 260-253 Religions of East Asia; or permission of instructor.

Aims of the Course
This course on Zen studies: 
(1) the Buddhist background from which Zen arose,
(2) Japanese Zen monastic practices including the kºan practice in Rinzai Zen, and 
(3) some recent critical controversies regarding Zen art and Zen as nationalism. 

This is an introductory survey course. Students who wish to do advanced work in Zen must supplement this course with more historical study and acquire competence in the primary languages. 

Scholarship
This course is an academic course. It does not teach martial arts, tea ceremony, or motorcycle maintenance. You will not receive instruction on how to meditate in this class. 

Although this course is an introductory survey, it is an upper-level course and presupposes that the student already has the academic skills, work habits and self-discipline of a senior student. Students will be expected to keep up with all assigned readings, to observe correct academic format on papers, and to participate actively in classroom discussion. 

Modules Groups, and Panel Presentations
Modules:
After the first week of introduction, the body of the course is divided into six 2-week modules, each module devoted to one topic. In each week, the Tuesday class will be a lecture (or sometimes a video), the first Thursday class will be group discussion and the second Thursday will be a panel discussion.
Groups:
The class will be divided into 6-person groups which will retain the same membership throughout the term. Thursday discussion takes place within the group. Students take turns leading the group discussion.
Panels:
The Panel on the second Thursday of each module consists of one member from each group who gives an oral presentation and then responds to questions afterwards. Each student appears in two Panels, once in the first half and once in the second half of the course.

Assignments
There are six assignments, one for each module. The standard assignment is a short paper usually about 1000 words in response to the question posed at the end of each module. However when it is your turn to make a Panel Presentation, you submit a long paper which is about 2500 words in length. You have some leeway about what slant you wish to take on your Panel Presentation, but in all cases, you must clear your topic with Prof. Hori in advance. 

Texts and Readings
Thurman, R. A. (tr.), The Holy Teaching of Vimalakirti. University Park: Pennsylvania UP, 1976.
Yampolsky, Philip B. The Platform Sutra of the Sixth Patriarch. New York: Columbia UP, 1967. 
Miura, Isshu and Sasaki, Ruth Fuller. The Zen Koan. New York: Harcourt, 1965. 
Sourcebook 260-451A Zen: Maxims and Methods 1998-99 Available in the McGill Bookstore

Revised: Grading and Lateness
1 Long Paper (approx. 2500 words) 30%
5 Short Papers (approx. 1000 words) 5 X 10% 50% 
APC (Attendance, Participation and Contribution) 20% 

Papers are graded not only for content but also for grammatical correctness and academic style. 
NUMBER YOUR PAGES. 

Learn the university regulations regarding PLAGIARISM. 

All papers are to be submitted on the Tuesday following the end of a module. Papers submitted late will be penalized one plus-minus grade per day of lateness. 

N. B. No work will be accepted after Dec. 1, 1998. 

Graduate Students

Graduate students should take this course under the number 260-687A. Graduate students write six short papers, no long papers, and one research paper on a topic related to the course. Please discuss the topic with the instructor first. Have a written statement of the topic, proposed bibliography, and outline ready by October 1.

6 Short Papers (approx. 1000 words) 6 X 10% 60% 
Research Paper (approx. 5000 words) 40%
The research paper must be submitted by Nov. 26, 1998.

SCHEDULE
Readings marked with an asterisk * are in the Sourcebook.

Week 1 Indian Roots of Zen 
Sept. 1, 3 Introduction to the Course: Review of basic Buddhism. Role of cognitive activity and the body in meditation. De-conditioning or re-conditioning?

Nyanaponika Thera. "The Basic Text" from The Heart of Buddhist Meditation. York Beach, MA: Samuel Weiser, 1962, 1988. 115-135.

Weeks 2-3 Mahayana Buddhism
Sign-up for Panel Presentations.

Sept. 8, 10: Mahayana Buddhism--Emptiness
Robert A. Thurman (tr.), The Holy Teaching of Vimalakirti. University Park and London: Pennsylvania UP, 1976.

Sept. 15, 17: Mahayana Buddhism--The Bodhisattva

Sept. 17 Panel Presentations and submission of first Short Paper: 
There are two silences in the Vimalakirti Sutra. Is there a difference between the silence of Sariputra before the Goddess (Ch 7) and the silence of Vimalakirti with Manjusri (Ch. 9)?

Weeks 4-5 The Sixth Patriarch 
Sept. 22, 24 Mirror poems; meditation and wisdom; sudden and gradual; no-thought; substance and function

Text (123-185) Yampolsky, The Platform Sutra of the Sixth Patriarch.

Sept. 29, Oct. 1 History or myth? Bodhidharma, lineage, the story of Hui-neng 
Introduction (1-121) Yampolsky. The Platform Sutra of the Sixth Patriarch.

Oct. 1 Panel Presentation and submission of second Short Paper
Recent scholarship shows that the Sixth Patriarch Sutra was repeatedly rewritten to conform to the political agendas of successive Ch'an groups in Chinese history. Yet contemporary Zen teachers still continue to teach from it. Anything wrong here? 

N. B. Graduate students submit proposals for research papers by Oct. 1.

Weeks 6-7 Enlightenment
Oct. 6, 8 Enlightenment--breaking out or breaking in? 
*Hakuin "Poisonous Leavings of Past Masters" from The Essential Teachings of the Zen Master Hakuin, tr. by Norman Waddell. Boston, MA: Shambhala, 1994. 19-35. 

*Dºgen, "Busshº (The Buddha-nature)" from Flowers of Emptiness: Selections from Dºgen's Shºbºgenzº. Translated by Hee-jin Kim. Lewiston/Queenston, NY: The Edwin Mellon Press, 1985. 67-96.

*Dºgen, "Genjº Kºan: Manifesting Absolute Reality," "Daigo Great Awakening", from Francis H. Cook, Sounds of Valley Streams: Enlightenment in Dogen's Zen. Albany: SUNY Press, 1989. 65-69, 117-123. 

Oct. 13, 15 Is a pure consciousness possible? 
*Dale S. Wright. "Rethinking Transcendence: The Role of Language in Zen Experience." Philosophy East and West 42:1 (Jan. 1992). 113-138. 

*Robert Gimello. "Meditation in Its Contexts." In Steven T. Katz (ed.). Mysticism and Religious Traditions. Oxford: Oxford UP, 1983. 61-88.

*Sharf, Robert H. "Buddhist Modernism and the Rhetoric of Meditative Experience." Numen 42 (1995): 228-283. 

Oct. 15 Panel Presentations and submission of third Short Paper
Zen is supposed to be founded on an experience beyond words, "A separate tradition outside scripture, not founded on words and letters." Is it?

Weeks 8-9 Zen Monasticism 
Oct. 20, 22 The Insider's View

Video: Principles and Practices of Zen

*Suzuki, D. T. "The Meditation Hall and the Ideals of the Monkish Discipline." in Essays in Zen Buddhism (First Series), London: Rider, 1949/Repr. New York: Grove, 1961. 314-362. 

Oct. 27, 29 The Outsider's View
*Foulk, T. Griffith. "Myth, Ritual and Monastic Practice in Sung Ch'an Buddhism." in Religion and Society in T'ang and Sung China, 147-208. eds. Patricia Buckley Ebrey, and Peter N. Gregory. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 1993. 

*Adler, Paul S. "Time and Motion Regained." Harvard Business Review (January 1993): 97-108. 

Oct. 29 Panel Presentations and submission of fourth Short Paper
"Sokei-an had no interest in reproducing the features of Japanese Zen monasticism, the strict and regimented training that aims at making people 'forget self.' In these establishments, individuality is stamped out, novices move together like a school of fish, their cross-legged posture corrected with an ever-ready stick." (Mary Farkas, ed. The Zen Eye [Tokyo and New York: Weatherhill, 1993] ix).

"We can imagine a Ch'an master asking 50 disciples the same question and the 50 disciples, without thinking, taking the same posture, thrusting one hand forward, and shouting, "Non-being!" Is this not like the Nazis who worshipped Hitler by screaming, "Seig Heil!" (Yi Wu, The Mind of Chinese Ch'an: The Ch'an School Masters and Their Kung-ans. San Francisco: Great Learning Publishing Co., 1989. x.) 

Comment on these passages.

Weeks 10-11 The Zen Kºan 

Nov. 3, 5 The Kºan: Structure and System
Miura, Isshu and Sasaki, Ruth Fuller. The Zen Koan. New York: Harcourt, 1965. 

*Shibayama Zenkei. Zen Comments on the Mumonkan.. Mentor/New American Library, 1974): "Case 2 Hyakujº and a Fox," 33-42; Case 35 "Senjo and Her Soul," 250-258. 

Nov. 10, 12 The Kºan: Instrument or realization
*Henry Rosemont. "The Meaning is the Use: Kºan and Mondº." Philosophy East and West 20: 2 (1970). 109-119.

*Kim, Hee-Jin. "The Reason of Words and Letters: Dºgen and Kºan Language" from Dºgen Studies, ed. William R. LaFleur. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 1985) 54-82.

*Extract from BUDDHA-L, Internet discussion group.

Nov. 12 Panel Presentations and submission of fifth Short Paper
Take either Case 2 or Case 35 of the Mumonkan and show its logical structure. Include Mumon's verse. 

Weeks 12-13 Zen Art 
Nov. 17, 19 The Tradition

Video: Zen Art 

*Helmut Brinker. Excerpts from Zen in the Art of Painting. Translated by George Campbell. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1987. 20-57

*HISAMATSU Shin'ichi, Zen and Fine Arts. Tokyo: Kodansha International, 1971. 28-60.

Nov. 24, 26 The Criticism
*SHIMIZU, Y. "Zen Art?" in H. Brinker (ed.), Zen in China, Japan and East Asian Art, Berne: Peter Lang Publishers. 1985. 73-98.

*Robert H. Scharf. "The Zen of Japanese Nationalism" History of Religions 33:1 (Aug. 1993). 1-41

Panel Presentations and sixth short paper:

Some people cannot see the "Zen" of Zen art" Is it only visible to a Zen eye? or is it a made-up fiction? 

Week 14 Zen Nationalism
Dec. 1, 4
*Brian Victoria, Ch. 8: "The Emergence of Imperial-State Zen and Soldier Zen," Zen at War. New York and Tokyo: Weatherhill, 1997. 95-129.

*Paul Swanson, "Zen is not Buddhism", Numen. 40 (1993), 115-149.

ALL WORK MUST BE SUBMITTED BY DEC. 1. 

260-451A Zen: Maxims and Methods Sourcebook

Nyanaponika Thera. "The Basic Text" from The Heart of Buddhist Meditation. York Beach, MA: Samuel Weiser, 1962, 1988. 115-135.

Hakuin "Poisonous Leavings of Past Masters" from The Essential Teachings of the Zen Master Hakuin, tr. by Norman Waddell. Boston, MA: Shambhala, 1994. 19-35. 

Dºgen, "Busshº (The Buddha-nature)" from Flowers of Emptiness: Selections from Dºgen's Shºbºgenzº. Translated by Hee-jin Kim. Lewiston/Queenston, NY: The Edwin Mellon Press, 1985. 67-96.

Dºgen, "Genjº Kºan: Manifesting Absolute Reality," "Daigo Great Awakening", from Francis H. Cook, Sounds of Valley Streams: Enlightenment in Dogen's Zen. Albany: SUNY Press, 1989. 65-69, 117-123. 

Dale S. Wright. "Rethinking Transcendence: The Role of Language in Zen Experience." Philosophy East and West. 42:1 (Jan. 1992). 113-138. 

Robert Gimello. "Meditation in Its Contexts." In Steven T. Katz (ed.). Mysticism and Religious Traditions. Oxford: Oxford UP, 1983. 61-88.

Sharf, Robert H. "Buddhist Modernism and the Rhetoric of Meditative Experience." Numen 42 (1995): 228-283. 

Suzuki, D. T. "The Meditation Hall and the Ideals of the Monkish Discipline." in Essays in Zen Buddhism (First Series), London: Rider, 1949/Repr. New York: Grove, 1961. 314-362. 

Foulk, T. Griffith. "Myth, Ritual and Monastic Practice in Sung Ch'an Buddhism." in Religion and Society in T'ang and Sung China, 147-208. eds. Patricia Buckley Ebrey, and Peter N. Gregory. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 1993. 

Adler, Paul S. "Time and Motion Regained." Harvard Business Review (January 1993): 97-108. 

Shibayama Zenkei. Zen Comments on the Mumonkan. Mentor/New American Library, 1974): "Case 2 Hyakujãand a Fox," 33-42; Case 35 "Senjo and Her Soul," 250-258. 

Henry Rosemont. "The Meaning is the Use: Kºan and Mondº." Philosophy East and West 20: 2 (1970). 109-119.

Kim, Hee-Jin. "The Reason of Words and Letters: Dºgen and Kºan Language," from Dºgen Studies, ed. William R. LaFleur. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press, 1985). 54-82.

Extract from BUDDHA-L, Internet discussion group.

Helmut Brinker. Excerpts from Zen in the Art of Painting. Translated by George Campbell. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1987. 20-57

HISAMATSU Shin'ichi, Zen and Fine Arts. Tokyo: Kodansha International, 1971. 28-60.

SHIMIZU, Y. "Zen Art?" in H. Brinker (ed.), Zen in China, Japan and East Asian Art, Berne: Peter Lang Publishers. 1985. 73-98.

Robert H. Scharf. "The Zen of Japanese Nationalism." History of Religions 33:1 (Aug. 1993). 1-41

Brian Victoria, Ch. 8: "The Emergence of Imperial-State Zen and Soldier Zen," Zen at War. New York and Tokyo: Weatherhill, 1997. 95-129.

Paul Swanson, "Zen is not Buddhism", Numen. 40 (1993): 115-149.

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